Monthly Archives: November 2017

Concurrent Delays and Freedom of Contract – curious decision of the TCC

Under any construction contract, there will be provision for extensions of the time for completion caused by qualifying events, for example variations or delays by the employer or its agents (primarily the architect/engineer).  The purpose of such provisions is to preserve the employer’s entitlement to claim delay damages.  Such extensions of time are, by necessity, creatures of contract, there being no common law right to extensions of time.  Under the prevention principle the consequence of an act of prevention or delay by the employer is to put time at large, thereby potentially depriving the employer of delay damages until the contractor has been allowed a reasonable time to complete.

What is often not covered so well in construction contracts is whether or not the extension of time is affected by delays which may be caused by an event for which the contractor is responsible, or which is otherwise not a qualifying event.  A classic example would be where a contractor is in delay (prior to the due date for completion) and a qualifying event occurs; or there is a qualifying event, and coterminously the works are similarly delayed by an event for which the contractor is responsible – ie, the works could not have been carried out at that time in any event.

Should the contractor be “let off the hook” for its own delay by the qualifying event?

Concurrent delay


Construction Management – a report from the first session of the IBA ICP Committee in Sydney

In October 2017, the International Bar Association held its annual conference in Sydney.  I was tasked, along with Jaime Gray from Navarro Sologuren, Paredes & Gray in Lima, Peru, with chairing the first session of the International Construction Projects Committee, on Construction Management – A Path to a Good Outcome or a Sure Way to Blow the Budget?

The task of the session was to examine the risks and benefits of adopting construction management as a procurement model for major projects.  The panel comprised internationally recognised construction lawyers and advisers Peter Scott Caldwell (from Hong Kong), Eduardo Koch (from Nicholson y Cano, in Argentina), Randy Hafer (from Kilpatrick Townsend in Atlanta, Georgia, USA), Yasemin Cetinel (from Cetinel Law, in Istanbul, Turkey and Rome, Italy) and Bill Barton (from Barton Legal in Leeds, UK).

The consensus of the discussion was that, while direct contracting using a construction management model may have advantages, they are not for the faint hearted.  Managing the various interfaces between the construction manager, the designers, main contractor and specialist suppliers and subcontractors can get messy, and the ability to lay off liability between each project participant is limited.

In order to capture the benefits potentially on offer through construction management, the owner needs to be very disciplined in the core requirements for all successful projects:

  • engaging the right resources at appropriate times;
  • investing time in defining the scope of the project and each appointment before it is made;
  • using risk registers and proactive project management techniques to identify project risks at a time when they can properly be avoided or at least mitigated;
  • properly establishing a reasonable project cost and monitoring progress of costs against budget at a time and in a manner which enables blow-outs to be avoided; and
  • including a disputes avoidance regime which maintains a collaborative relationship throughout the project team.

The conclusion was that any procurement method alone is insufficient to achieve this.

The published report is here.


At the Bar – Arbitration Act Refinement

In early April 2017, Paul Foster-Bell MP’s private members’ bill amending the Arbitration Act 1996 was drawn from the ballot, and on 12 April 2017, the Arbitration Amendment Bill 2017 received its first reading.  It is now with the Electoral and Justice Select Committee for consideration.  Since the election, and Mr Foster-Bell MP’s retirement, the Bill has been taken over by Andrew Bayly MP.

The article linked below, discussing the amendments to the Act, and the underlying reasons for them, was published in the October edition of the NZ Bar Association’s magazine, At the Bar.

At the Bar – Refinement of the Arbitration Act


CPTPPA – progress?

The kindlier version of the TPPA, the Comprehensive and Progressive TransPacific Partnership Agreement, has been in the press recently, with an excellent article from Simon Foote of Bankside Chambers in the NBR (sorry, I can’t link it, as it’s behind a firewall), and an article in the UK’s CDR magazine, in which Daniel Kalderimis from Chapman Tripp sheds some light on the revisions, and there are some nice quotes from Deborah Hart and from me in our AMINZ capacities.

For the moment, the CPTPPA remains stalled.  In the joint Ministerial Statement, released on 11 November while all representatives of the signing States were in Vietnam, a number of provisions in the original TPPA (of primary importance to the US) were suspended.  Formal signature, and final ratification remains up in the air, particularly with Canada suffering what appears to be speed wobble.  It’s a case of “watch this space”.

By |November 16th, 2017|Dispute Resolution, ISDS|0 Comments

Public Sector Procurement after the Court of Appeal decision in Problem Gambling

On Tuesday, 14 November 2017, I was asked to present a paper at a Legalwise seminar on Public Decision Making and Reason Writing.  The focus of my paper was on the relevance of the Government Rules of Sourcing, the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA), which New Zealand acceded to on 13 July 2015, and recent case law on importing public law issues into challenges of Government procurement projects.

The accepted position, outlined by Lord Hoffman in Pratt Contractors v Transit [2003] UKPC 83, is that internal government rules are a matter of compliance for the procuring body, but are not a basis for challenge by disappointed contractors.  That position was largely confirmed by the NZ Court of Appeal in 2008 in the case of Lab Tests v Auckland District Health Board [2008] NZCA 385.  In relation to the availability of judicial review, the Court of Appeal held that such review was really only available in cases of fraud, corruption and bad faith.

In Ririnui v Landcorp [2016] NZSC 62, the Supreme Court opened the door slightly on judicial review, however that case would seem to be relatively fact specific.

This approach was confirmed by the Court of Appeal, in A-G v Problem Gambling Foundation of New Zealand [2016] NZCA 609, overturning the decision of Woodhouse J in the High Court (Problem Gambling Foundation v A-G [2015] NZHC 1701).  Winkelmann J made a number of important findings in the Court of Appeal:

  • the narrow test for judicial review outlined by the Court of Appeal in Lab Tests is to be preferred, being available only in cases of fraud, corruption, bad faith and similar circumstances, and not as an avenue for disappointed bidders to challenge procurement processes
  • the Government Rules of Sourcing may bind Government agencies, but they do not impose a procedural obligation enforceable by potential contractors
  • fairness and good faith are requirements in procurement processes, however they only require honesty and a willingness to consider information which might change a reasonable and honestly held view – those evaluating tenders are not required to leave their previous experience at the door
  • if a request for proposals excludes the intention of creating legal relationships during the tender procedure, then a process contract cannot be implied
  • in order to establish a breach of legitimate expectation, the claimant must establish – (1) the nature of the commitment by the public authority, whether by promise, settled practice or policy; (2) that the reliance on the promise, practice or policy was legitimate; and (3) the appropriate remedy

Notably, the Court of Appeal has widened (slightly) the grounds for judicial review from the narrow test proposed in Lab Tests by the reference to similar circumstance, but that will really be factually specific for each case.  The Problem Gambling Foundation failed, in the Court of Appeal’s view, to make out that case.

In relation to the Government Rules of Sourcing, while they cannot be used a basis for challenge, as outlined by Winkelmann J, if a process contract can be implied, and if those Rules are incorporated into the tender procedures, either directly or by reference, then clearly they can be used as a basis for challenge.  That challenge would, then, be in contract, rather than by judicial review.

In relation to the GPA, while this is a State to State agreement, the NZ Government is required to establish a review board to hear complaints from suppliers from other States over breaches of the GPA.  The review board has the power to direct the contract to be set aside, the procurement process to be run again and/or to award damages for breach of the GPA.  While the Government Rules of Sourcing are broadly consistent with the GPA, the latter is more prescriptive.  Much like the current discussions over ISDS, it will be interesting to see if any foreign corporates take the opportunity to challenge a public procurement process in NZ.

A copy of my paper is available here:

Government Procurement – Legalwise


Dispute Resolution of Construction Disputes

On Monday, 13 November 2017, AMINZ ran a one day seminar on resolving disputes in the construction industry.

The day was chaired by Derek Firth, and presentations were made by Stuart Robertson, from Kensington Swan in Auckland, on the role of the Engineer; Janine Stewart, from Minster Ellison Rudd Watts in Auckland, on adjudication under the Construction Contracts Act 2002; Michael Weatherall, from Simpson Grierson in Auckland, on the use of disputes boards; and I rounded out the day on the use of arbitration.

The panel discussion discussed each process and issues arising from all perspectives, including acting for owners, acting for contractors and acting as adjudicator/arbitrator, and provided valuable information on the topic.  The papers will be loaded on the AMINZ website shortly.  In the interim, my paper is attached:

Arbitration of Construction Disputes


Guidance on the AMINZ Arbitration Rules

In May of this year, the AMINZ Council approved the new AMINZ Arbitration Rules.  The Rules were result of extensive work by the drafting committee, chaired by me and assisted by Sir David Williams QC from Bankside Chambers in Auckland, Wendy Miles QC from Debevoise & Plimpton LLP in London, James Hosking from Chaffetz Lindsey LLP in New York, Daniel Kalderimis from Chapman Tripp in Wellington, Timothy Lindsay from Lindsay litigation-arbitration in Auckland and Sophie East from Bell Gully in Auckland.

On 30 October this year, I presented a  Guide to the AMINZ Arbitration Rules 2017.

The Rules are innovative, in that they capture current best practice in international arbitration and they provide flexibility for both domestic and international arbitration, large and small.  Key provisions in the Rules are:

  • procedural guidance in the use of the IBA guidelines on conflicts of interest, party representation and rule of evidence
  • memorial style presentation of pleadings, submissions of fact and law and evidence upon which the parties intend to rely
  • good faith dealings, including requiring the parties’ legal counsel to comply with the overriding objective to have the dispute resolved promptly, cost effectively and proportionately to the matters in dispute
  • appointment by AMINZ under the UNCITRAL list procedure, and failing that in accordance with the AMINZ Appointments Policy
  • emergency arbitration for the granting of interim measures and procedural orders (within 14 days)
  • expedited arbitration for matters of less than NZD 2 million not involving significant disputes of fact or law (decision without reasons within one month, and a fully reasoned final award within 2 months)
  • summary dismissal of proceedings which manifestly lack legal merit
  • Kaplan Openings, requiring an “issues hearing” in advance of the main hearing to allow parties to outline their respective cases
  • costs to be determined in accordance with the AMINZ Rules and Guidelines to Awarding Costs in Arbitration
  • appeals on questions of law are, by default, excluded – however, if the parties agree to such appeals, they are to be dealt with by the AMINZ Arbitration Appeals Tribunal
  • supervision of the arbitral proceeding by the AMINZ Court of Arbitration, administration by an AMINZ appointed Registrar and the use of tribunal secretaries

This has been a significant project for AMINZ, reflected in the warm reception which the Rules have received.


Bonds Revisited

Two recent cases in the High Court, Richina Pacific v AAI (formerly Vero Insurance) & Samson [2017] NZHC 1686 and Custom Street Hotel v Plus Construction [2016] NZHC 3049 shine the light on the use of bonds in New Zealand.

The first, Richina v Vero, concerned a development in Parnell.  The work had been practically complete, apart from a car stacker (which was being problematic), when Mainzeal Property and Construction went into receivership.  The project manager issued a practical completion certificate on the basis that the car stacker was outstanding work, and the property owner, Samson, made demand under the bond.  There were two difficulties with the demand – first, that the bond was (yet again) unclear as to whether or not it was on-demand or conditional; and the second, whether or not the bond had been released by the issue of the practical completion certificate.

The High Court held that the bond was clearly not on-demand and, in more difficult to follow reasoning, that as the contract did not provide for sectional completion, the practical completion certificate had not, in fact, been issued.

A clear lesson can be learned from the case is that if a bond is to be on-demand, then it must clearly be stated as such.  Interestingly, Justice Hinton accepted the UK position, outlined in IIG Capital LLC v Van Der Merwe [2008] EWCA Civ 542 and in Vossloh Aktiengesellschaft v Alpha Trains (UK) Ltd [2010] EWHC 2443 (Ch), that a bond will be presumed to be conditional, unless there is clear wording to the contrary.

In the second case, Custom Street Hotel  v Plus Construction, Plus had procured a bond in favour of Custom Street Hotel clearly in on-demand form; payment was expressly to be made “on demand without proof or condition.”  However due to the substantial amount secured by the bond (25% of the contract price), any such demand had to be accompanied by a certificate from the Engineer that the contractor was in default and the amount claimed properly due under the contract.  In the ordinary course, following the decision of Justice Ramsay in AES-3C Martiza East EOOD v Credit Agricole Corporate and Investment Bank [2011] EWHC 123 (TCC) and the seminal decision of Lord Denning MR in Edward Owen v Barclay’s Bank [1978] QB 159 (CA), if a demand appears to be correct on its face, under an on-demand bond the amount demanded must be paid up without further investigation.

The position in the Custom Street Hotel case, however was significantly different in that Plus Construction did not try to prevent the bond issuer, ANZ, from paying on the demand; it injuncted the Engineer from issuing his certificate and Custom Street Hotel from making demand, following the approach taken in Simon Carves v Ensus [2011] EWHC 657 (TCC).  The injunctive proceedings were settled in favour of arbitration, at which Plus Construction prevailed.  Custom Street Hotel appealed to the High Court (with leave), and Justice Gilbert concurred with the arbitrator that there was no basis for demand under the bond.  The matter was heard by the Court of Appeal (Kós P with Harrison & Clifford JJ) in October, and its decision is awaited with interest.

Attached is a paper delivered to the New Zealand Institute of Quantity Surveyors in Wellington and Auckland in September of this year.

Bonds (NZIQS)